Socio-Cultural Issues In India

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India is a country of a variety of cultures and religions. The integrity through which Indians follow their culture can be rarely seen in other countries. However, not all the old cultures and myths benefit people. There are many issues related to Indian culture and society which are a matter of discussion. These socio-cultural issues in India are making the Indian society less sympathetic than it should be. Let’s discuss some of these socio-cultural issues in India. 

The Dowry System

The Dowry System has been indulged in the marriage tradition of India from a time indefinite. This system is not helping the society in its development in any way but still it is prevalent in India. Dowry is a socio-cultural issue because it provides harm to the women of the society. 

We see thousands of incidents daily where girls are burnt alive by their in-laws in desire of dowry. Groom even refuses to marry the bride on the day of marriage if he doesn’t get the dowry. However there are laws made to control the dowry related crimes but girls still suffer due to dowry in India. The domestic violence, the abuse a girl faces due to dowry reproaches us that why this system is still prevalent in India. 

Gender Inequality

Gender inequality and Gender discrimination are one of the major Socio-Cultural Issues in India. There are still some parents who become sad when a girl child is born. In many areas, girls are not given proper education and opportunities to build their career. According to the data of the National Sample Survey, the male and female literacy rate were 81.5% and 64.6% respectively in 2017-18. This data clearly shows the proof of gender inequality in India. 

However, the condition of women was worse in ancient India. They had hardly any freedom in their life. The marriages of women were fixed without asking their choices. Women were forced to live in ‘Pardah’ and ‘Ghoonghat’. They were usually not allowed to work outside their home and earn money. 

The sad truth is that even today many patriarchal families believe that the sole responsibility of a woman is to look after her children, home and serve her husband. Most of the girls in India are still not allowed to talk with boys and to choose their life partner. We often hear how conservative families kill and abandon their daughters if they do love marriage.

While men are free to choose their favourite careers, girls are forced to choose teaching as their profession considering it safe for them. There are only very few girls who can fulfill their unusual dream by fighting with patriarchal society. It is very difficult to assume whether the gender discrimination against women will ever end in India.

Parents are given the position of God in Indian society. However, today’s children hardly bother about their responsibility towards their parents. The way older parents are abandoned by their children is a serious socio-cultural issue in India. As the society is getting more developed and modern, the elderly related issues are also increasing. 

Adults have become so busy in their careers and competition that they hardly care for their old parents. In the end, the old parents are bound to spend their life lonely. Recently, the Supreme Court of India has reformed a law related to elderly issues. According to the new rule, parents can take back their gifted property from their children if the children don’t look after them.


Communalism is the term used for the division of people on the basis of religion, ideology and ethics. It is one of the most dangerous Socio-Cultural issues in India. The communal riots between different communities, especially between hindu and muslims is a serious issue in India. We all know how the communal riots had taken place when Babri Masjid was destroyed in UP. Similarly, various harmful accidents because of religious differences have been happening since the time of partition.


Talking about poverty, then it is a serious Socio-Cultural issue in India. India is getting developed in every field including technological, educational and health. But the situation of poverty is the same as before. During the past few years, poverty has increased in both rural and urban parts of India. In 2012 the number of urban poors was 53 billion and in 2019-20, it is 71 billion. In the same duration, the number of poors increased from 217 million to 270 million in the rural areas. 


We don’t discuss any other socio-cultural issues in India more than unemployment. According to the survey of Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy, there were 53 million unemployed people as of Dec, 2021. Between 2012 and 2018, the unemployment rate of 15 to 29 age groups rose from 6% to 18%. There are various causes of unemployment including the increasing population of India. Employment was also affected a lot during the time of COVID-19 and lockdown. 

From time to time, the Indian government has tried to create employment opportunities by launching various schemes. The latest Agnipath scheme is also launched for the purpose of reducing unemployment rate in India. 

Drug/Alcohol Addiction

Drug or alcohol addiction is a very serious problem in today’s Indian society. Mostly, the unemployed and poor people become the victims of alcohol addiction. Similarly, drug addiction is a serious issue among the youths of India. The drugs are banned in India but illegally they are still consumed by youths. Drug addiction not only kills the future of youths but also force them to suicide. Serious measures should be adopted by the India government to stop drug abuse in the country. 

Caste Discrimination

Discrimination on the basis of caste is not a new thing in the Indian society. We very well know how Mahatma Gandhi had fought for the rights of Harijans and removed untouchability from society. The division of people on the basis of caste had been done in ancient India only. The Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras are the four castes divided on the basis of their superiority. India has become modern but the caste system is still prevalent in India. The upper castes like Brahmins and Kshatriyas still avoid drinking water from SC/STs homes. Not only this, but marrying a girl or boy from lower caste is also considered a sin in orthodox upper caste families. 


All these Socio-Cultural issues play a major role in the functioning of Indian society. So, it is not possible to remove these issues overnight. It can’t be assumed how much time India will take to free itself from all the harmful socio-cultural problems. However, small steps from each individual can contribute a lot in solving the issues of society. In the end, it is our responsibility to build a society, where citizens are not discriminated against on the basis of gender and caste. A society which is free of drug abuse, poverty, unemployment, dowry and other Socio-Cultural issues. Let’s join hands and build this new India.